The benefits of soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats are mediated by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity and decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.
Nutrition. 2018 Jul - Aug;51-52:66-72. Epub 2018 Feb 7. PMID: 29605766
Girlandia Alexandre Brasil
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether long-term treatment with the soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir affects mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac hypertrophy through the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity, ACE activity, and the inflammatory-to-anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).
METHODS: SHRs were treated with the soluble non-bacterial kefir fraction (SHR-kefir) or with kefir vehicle (SHR-soluble fraction of milk). Normotensive control Wistar Kyoto animals received the soluble fraction of milk. All treatments were administered by gavage (0.3 mL/100g/body weight), once daily for eight weeks. At the end, after basal MAP and Heart Rate (HT) measurement, barorreflex sensitivity was evaluated through in bolus administrations of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (AP[arterial pressure 50%], the lower plateau, and HR range were measured). ACE activity and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) were evaluated by ELISA. Cardiac hypertrophy was analysed morphometrically.
RESULTS: Compared to SHR control, SHR-kefir exhibited a significant decrease in both MAP (SHR: 184 ± 5; SHR-Kefir: 142 ± 8 mmHg), and HR (SHR: 360 ± 10; SHR-kefir: 310 ± 14 bpm). The non-bacterial fraction of kefir also reduced cardiac hypertrophy, TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio, and ACE activity in SHRs. SHR-kefir baroreflex sensitivity, resulted in a partial but significant recovery of baroreflex gain, as demonstrated by improvements in AP, the lower plateau, and HR range.
CONCLUSION: In summary, our results indicate that long-term administration of the non-bacterial fraction of kefir promotes a significant decrease in both MAP and HR, by improving baroreflex, and reduces cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs, likely via ACE inhibition, and reduction of the TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio.