Spent hops (Humulus Lupulus L.) extract as modulator of the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Feb ;71(1). Epub 2020 Apr 27. PMID: 32350150
Macrophages play important roles in acute and chronic inflammation. Upon their activation, they secrete a variety of mediators, including eicosanoids, nitric oxide and cytokines, which play different roles in the stimulation and resolution of inflammatory processes. There is a continuous search for selective modulators of these processes. Natural polyphenols and polyphenol-rich extracts have been found to possess preventive and therapeutic potential, including by their anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the inhibition of the formation of inflammatory mediators by the spent hops extract (SHE), a polyphenol-rich extract from Humulus Lupulus L., was examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- activated murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). The SHE suppressed inter alia the interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression to 32% in LPS-activated macrophages and to 61% at a protein level (at 25μg/mL). SHE reduced both the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression to 47% and their protein expression to 32%. Not only did SHE inhibit the IL-6 and COX-2 levels but also decreased both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression to 2% at 25 μg/mL and nitric oxide (NO) productionfor all tested concentrations. The inhibited expression of these inflammatory molecules was likely caused by the reduced activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Both mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB was decreased to 38% and 42%, respectively. These results provide the first evidence that SHE decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators, which merits further studies to investigate the potential of SHE as anti-inflammatory preparation.