Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Nov 13 ;18(11). Epub 2017 Nov 13. PMID: 29137190
Spirulina maxima, a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ1-42-injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ1-42-injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ1-42-injected mice. SM70EE also promotedactivation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice.