Spirulina platensis attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) attenuates Cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: Evidence for sperm apoptosis and p53/Bcl-2 expression.
J Food Biochem. 2021 Jul 9:e13854. Epub 2021 Jul 9. PMID: 34245022
Cyclophosphamide is an antitumor agent that causes disorders in fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis against Cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity. 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Experimental groups included three groups. The first experimental group received Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally. The second and third experimental groups received 5 mg/kg BW Cyclophosphamide and 500 and 1,000 mg/kg BW S. platensis orally, respectively. The control groups included a control group, and two S. platensis control groups. Following 28 days, two flow cytometry techniques were used to determine sperm apoptosis and testicular protein expression of tumor protein (p53) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). p53 is a tumor suppressor protein that causes the cell to enter the apoptosis cycle after DNA damage and Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that acts through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. FITC-Annexin V assay was used for sperm apoptosis evaluation. For protein expression assay, primary and secondary antibodies staining were performed. The Cyclophosphamide group showed a significant increase in sperm apoptosis compared to the control group. Cyclophosphamide significantly increased p53 and decreased Bcl-2 expression compared to the control group. S. platensis co-treated groups exhibited a significant decrease in sperm apoptosis compared to the Cyclophosphamide group. Moreover, S. platensis co-treated groups displayed a significant decreasing in p53 and increasing in Bcl-2 expression compared to the Cyclophosphamide group. The results of this study indicated that S. platensis protected rats against Cyclophosphamide-induced reproductive toxicity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cyclophosphamide is the chemotherapy agent used to treat different cancers. Cyclophosphamide has side effects on the male reproductive system. Spirulina plantesis has a protective effect because of its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Co-administration of Spirulina plantesis with Cyclophosphamide reduces sperm apoptosis also decreases P53 protein expression andincreases Bcl-2 protein expression. This study validated the anti-apoptotic potential of Spirulina plantesis against Cyclophosphamide-induced male reproductive toxicity.