Autoimmune myopathies: autoantibodies, phenotypes and pathogenesis.
Nat Rev Neurol. 2011 Jun ;7(6):343-54. Epub 2011 Jun 8. PMID: 21654717
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Johns Hopkins Myositis Center, Mason F. Lord Building Center Tower, Suite 4500, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. USA. email@example.com
The different autoimmune myopathies-for example, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM)-have unique muscle biopsy findings, but they also share specific clinical features, such as proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes. Furthermore, around 60% of patients with autoimmune myopathy have been shown to have a myositis-specific autoantibody, each of which is associated with a distinct clinical phenotype. The typical clinical presentations of the autoimmune myopathies are reviewed here, and the different myositis-specific autoantibodies, including the anti-synthetase antibodies, dermatomyositis-associated antibodies, and IMNM-associated antibodies, are discussed in detail. This Review also focuses on a newly recognized form of IMNM that is associated with statin use and the production of autoantibodies that recognize 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, the pharmacological target of statins. The contribution of interferon signaling to the development of dermatomyositis and the potential link between malignancies and the initiation of autoimmune myopathies are also assessed.