The possible alleviating effect of saffron on chlorpyrifos experimentally induced cardiotoxicity: Histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.
Acta Histochem. 2019 May ;121(4):472-483. Epub 2019 Apr 9. PMID: 30975443
Hanaa Attia Khalaf
INTRODUCTION: Pesticides are responsible for many occupational health hazards among farmers in developing countries. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the broad-spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides used for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes.
AIM OF THE WORK: The present study was designed to examine the effects of CPF on cardiac muscles and to evaluate the possible protective role of crocin using biochemical and histological methods with the intention to recognize the molecular tools of its probable cardioprotective effects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into 4 equal groups (9 rats each): negative control group, positive control group, CPF treated group and CPF&crocin treated group. The heart was removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
RESULTS: Stained sections of cardiac muscle fibers of group III with H&E revealed remarkable histological changes in the form of disorganization of the fibers with increase in the interstitial spaces between these fibers. Congested dilated blood capillaries could be observed with extravasation of the red blood cells leading to interstitial hemorrhage. Focal areas of mononuclear cellular infiltration could be seen in the interstitial tissue. A number of cardiac fibers achieved pale acidophilic vacuolated sarcoplasm while others achieved dark homogenous acidophilic sarcoplasm. Some nuclei were peripherally situated and pyknotic while others were centrally situated and encircled with halos. Apparently increased masses of collagen fibers among the cardiac muscle fibers and around the congested dilated blood vessels with the presence of focal parts of extensive collagen fiber deposition were noticed in Mallory-stained sections of group III. Strong positive immunoreactions in the endomysium and perimysium of the cardiac fibers, along with the walls of blood capillaries and in interstitial cells, could be detected in immunohistochemical staining sections of group III with vimentin antibody. Immunoreactivity to caspase 3 was higher in the sarcoplasm of the cardiac fibers of group III compared to that of control group. A highly significant decrease in the cardiac level of SOD and CAT; however, a highly significant increase in MDA level was noted between the control groups and CPF treated group. Additionally, there was a significant improvement of the chemical and histological representations of group IV, and these improvement pictures were toward the normal.
CONCLUSION: The study concludes that crocin can alleviate the toxic effect of chlorpyrifos caused by oxidative stress on cardiac muscle.