Effects of Plantago major L. leaf extracts on oral epithelial cells in a scratch assay.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 14 ;141(3):825-30. Epub 2012 Mar 21. PMID: 22465512
Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Balsgård, Fjälkestadsvägen 459, 291 94 Kristianstad, Sweden.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects from different leaf extracts of the traditional medicinal herb Plantago major L. (plantain) on cell proliferation and migration in vitro, as a test for potential wound healing properties.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water and ethanol-based extracts were prepared from Plantago major fresh and dried leaves, and tested in vitro in a scratch assay with oral epithelial cells.
RESULTS: The scratch assay produced reliable results after 18h. Most of the tested extracts increased the proliferation/migration of the oral epithelial cells compared to the negative control. A concentration of 1.0mg/mL (on dry weight basis) appears to be optimal regardless of type of extract, and among the alternatives, 0.1mg/mL was always better than 10mg/mL. Ethanol-based extracts with a concentration of 10mg/mL had very detrimental effects on cell proliferation/migration. At the other two concentrations, ethanol-based extracts had the most beneficial effect, followed by water extracts of fresh leaves, ethanol plus water extracts of dried leaves and, finally, water extracts of dried leaves.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that both the water extracts and the more polyphenol-rich ethanol-based extracts of Plantago major leaves have medicinal properties. Further research is, however, needed to determine what compounds are responsible for the wound healing effects.