Zinc and selenium indicators and their relation to immunologic and metabolic parameters in male patients with human immunodeficiency virus.
Nutrition. 2020 Feb ;70:110585. Epub 2019 Sep 13. PMID: 31698296
Ivan Armando Osuna-Padilla
OBJECTIVES: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among people living with HIV (PLWHIV). The clinical and immunologic consequences of micronutrient deficiencies have been poorly explored in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of zinc and selenium deficiency (dietary intake and serum concentrations) and analyze their associations with absolute CD4+ T-cell counts, inflammation markers, and metabolic disorders in a cohort of antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected individuals.
METHODS: The zinc and selenium intakes of 124 HIV-infected men were estimated using 3-d food records. In a subcohort of 45 individuals, serum zinc and selenium concentrations and proinflammatory cytokines were determined. Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), CD4+ T-cell counts, lipid profile, glucose, and blood pressure were determined and were associated with zinc and selenium dietary intake and serum concentrations.
RESULTS: Of the PLWHIV studied, 58% had suboptimal intake of zinc and 8% demonstrated suboptimal intake of selenium. Serum deficiencies for zinc and selenium were 23.9% and 65.9%, respectively. Zinc and selenium intake were correlated with increased muscle mass. Selenium intake was associated with increased BMD of the lumbar region. An inverse correlation between serum selenium concentration and several proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) was found.
CONCLUSION: Suboptimal zinc and selenium intake and serum concentration deficiencies are highly prevalent in treated HIV-positive individuals and are associated with body composition, BMD, and inflammation. Clinical trials should be designed to explore the effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on metabolic, inflammatory, and immunologic parameters on the HIV-positive population.