Associations among sugar sweetened beverage intake, visceral fat, and cortisol awakening response in minority youth.
Physiol Behav. 2016 Sep 19 ;167:188-193. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27660033
G E Shearrer
CONTEXT: Abdominal adiposity has long been associated with excess caloric intake possibly resulting from increased psychosocial stress and associated cortisol dysfunction. However, the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake specifically with cortisol variability and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between SSB intake, VAT, and cortisol response in minority youth.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis.
SETTING: The University of Southern California.
PARTICIPANTS: 60 overweight/obese Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adolescents ages 14-18years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VAT via Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI), cortisol awakening response (CAR) via multiple salivary samples, and SSB intake via multiple 24-hour diet recalls. SSB intake was divided into the following: low SSB consumers (<1 servings per day), medium SSB consumers (≥1-<2 servings per day), high SSB consumers (≥2 servings per day). Analysis of covariance were run with VAT and CAR as dependent variables and SSB intake categories (independent variable) with the following a priori covariates: sex, Tanner stage, ethnicity, caloric intake, and body mass index.
RESULTS: The high SSB intake group exhibited a 7% higher VAT compared to the low SSB intake group (β=0.25, CI:(0.03, 0.33), p=0.02). CAR was associated with VAT (β=0.31, CI:(0.01,0.23), p=0.02). The high SSB intake group exhibited 22% higher CAR compared to the low SSB intake group (β=0.30, CI:(0.02,0.48), p=0.04).
CONCLUSION: This is the first study exploring the relationship between SSB, VAT, and CAR. SSB consumption appears to be independently associated greater abdominal adiposity and higher morning cortisol variability in overweight and obese minority youth. This study highlights potential targets for interventions specifically to reduce SSB intake in a minority youth population.