Comparison of the effects of sulforaphane and pioglitazone on insulin resistance and associated dyslipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and endothelial dysfunction in fructose-fed rats.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019 Feb ;66:43-54. Epub 2018 Dec 13. PMID: 30597379
Noha M Shawky
The purpose of this work was to compare the influences of sulforaphane (SFN) to those of the standard insulin sensitizer pioglitazone (PIO) on high fructose diet (HFrD)-induced insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and vascular dysfunction in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (150-200 g) were fed on a standard diet (control) or a high fructose diet (HFrD, 60% w/w fructose) for 60 days. From day 16, two subgroups of HFrD-fed rats received either SFN (0.5 mg/kg/day, orally) or PIO (5 mg/kg/day, orally) along with HFrD until the end of the experiment. Fructose-fed rats showedsignificant decreases in food intake, body weight and feeding efficiency; effects that were not altered by either treatment. Data from insulin tolerance test (ITT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices demonstrated impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose utilizationin HFrD-fed rats. SFN and PIO treatments significantly reduced OGTT(Glass's Delta values = 1.12 and 0.84, respectively), decreased ITT(Glass's Delta values = 1.05 and 0.71, respectively), significantly diminished HOMA-IR index (by 55.6% and 77.6%, respectively), and increased HOMA-β value (by 1.8 and 1.3 fold, respectively) compared to the HFrD rats. Moreover, SFN and PIO ameliorated hepatic oxidative stress and reduced serum levels of C-reactiveprotein and lactate dehydrogenase in HFrD-fed rats. Furthermore, SFN and PIO administrations improved insulin resistance-associated heaptosteatosis and enhanced vascular responsiveness to acetylcholine-induced relaxations. However, only SFN was able to enhance serum HDL-C levels in HFrD group. These finding suggests that SFN elicited insulin-sensitizing, hepatoprotective, and vasculoprotective effects in HFrD insulin-resistant rats that were comparable to those exerted by PIO.