Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sulphurenic Acid, a Triterpenoid Compound from, in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 2 ;20(19). Epub 2019 Oct 2. PMID: 31581697
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of sulphurenic acid (SA), a pure compound from, on diabetes and hyperlipidemia in an animal model study and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism. Diabetes was induced by daily 55 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) solution over five days. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and orally gavaged with SA (at three dosages) or glibenclamide (Glib), fenofibrate (Feno) or vehicle for 3 weeks. Our findings showed that STZ-induced diabetic mice had significantly increased fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1), plasma triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) levels (<0.001,<0.001,<0.001, and<0.05, respectively) but decreased blood insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels compared to those of the control group (<0.001,<0.001, and<0.001, respectively). Administration of SA to STZ-induced diabetic mice may lower blood glucose but it increased the insulin levels with restoration of the size of the islets of Langerhans cells, implying that SA protected against STZ-induced diabetic states within the pancreas. At the molecular level, SA treatment exerts an increase in skeletal muscle expression levels of membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt to increase the membrane glucose uptake, but the mRNA levels of PEPCK and G6Pase are decreased to inhibit hepatic glucose production, thus leading to its hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, SA may cause hypolipidemic effects not only by enhancing hepatic expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα (PPARα) with increased fatty acid oxidation but also by reducing lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FAS) as well as reducing mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)1and SREBP2 to lower blood TG and TC levels. Our findings demonstrated that SA displayed a protective effect against type 1 diabetes and a hyperlipidemic state in STZ-induced diabetic mice.