Synergism betweenα-mangostin and TRAIL induces apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity through the mitochondrial pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017 Dec ;38(6):3439-3446. Epub 2017 Oct 12. PMID: 29039600
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tree found in South-East Asia and the pericarp of its fruit has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of many human illnesses. Mangosteen fruit rinds contain a high concentration of xanthone, which is a type of polyphenol. One type of xanthone,α-mangostin, has been reported to exert chemopreventive effects against chemically-induced colon cancer through the decrease of c-Myc expression, suppressing tumor growth in a mouse model of mammary cancer. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitive effect of α-mangostin on the growth of prostatecancer. However, it remains unclear whether α-mangostin induces cell death in oral cancer. The present study examined the impact of α-mangostin on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HOSCC). Firstly we analyzed the expression of c-Myc in five HOSCC cell lines. The highest expression level of c-MycmRNA was observed in SAS cells and the lowest in HSC-4 cells. Therefore, SAS cells were treated with α-mangostin, which was found to exert a weak cytocidal effect. Since α-mangostin has been reported to exert synergistic effects on cancers when combined with anticancer drugs, we attempted to evaluate such synergistic effects of α-mangostin when used with a cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis‑inducing ligand (TRAIL). We found that the combination of α-mangostin with TRAIL induced apoptosis of SAS cells through the mitochondrial pathway via activation of caspase-9 and -3/7, following release of cytochrome c. This apoptosis was induced by S/G2/M-phase arrest. Immunopositivity for c-Myc was observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 16 (40%) of the 40 cases of HOSCC. These data revealed that the combination of α-mangostin and TRAIL may have a considerablepotential for the treatment of oral cancer.