Targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of COVID-19 with naturally occurring phytochemicals. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of COVID-19 with naturally occurring phytochemicals: anstudy for drug development.
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 22. PMID: 32698689
Spike glycoprotein, a class I fusion protein harboring the surface of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2S), plays a seminal role in the viral infection starting from recognition of the host cell surface receptor, attachment to the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cells. Spike glycoprotein engages host Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors for entry into host cells, where the receptor recognition and attachment of spike glycoprotein to the ACE2 receptors is a prerequisite step and key determinant of the host cell and tissue tropism. Binding of spike glycoprotein to the ACE2 receptor triggers a cascade of structural transitions, including transition from a metastable pre-fusion to a post-fusion form, thereby allowing membrane fusion and internalization of the virus. From ancient times people have relied on naturally occurring substances like phytochemicals to fight against diseases and infection. Among these phytochemicals, flavonoids and non-flavonoids have been the active sources of different anti-microbial agents. We performed molecular docking studies using 10 potential naturally occurring compounds (flavonoids/non-flavonoids) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and compared their affinity with an FDA approved repurposed drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Further, our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and energy landscape studies with fisetin, quercetin, and kamferol revealed that these molecules bind with the hACE2-S complex with low binding free energy. The study provided an indication that these molecules might have the potential to perturb the binding of hACE2-S complex. In addition, ADME analysis also suggested that these molecules consist of drug-likeness property, which may be further explored as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.