Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018 Mar 1 ;51(4):e6891. Epub 2018 Mar 1. PMID: 29513793
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Without effective treatment, its prognosis is notoriously poor. Tea polyphenols (TPs) have many pharmacological and health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, and vasodilatory properties. However, the anti-cancer effect of TPs in human gallbladder cancer has not yet been determined. Cell viability and colony formation assay were used to investigate the cell growth. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Human tumor xenografts were used to examine the effect of TPs on gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. TPs significantly inhibited cell growth of gallbladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle progression in GBC cells was blocked at the S phase by TPs. TPs also induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis in GBC cells by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expressions and downregulating Bcl-2, cyclin A, and Cdk2 expressions. The effects of TPs on GBC were further proven in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our study is the first to report that TPs inhibit GBC cell growth and these compounds may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treating gallbladder cancer.