Tebuconazole-induced toxicity and the protective effect of Ficus carica extract in Neotropical fruit-eating bats.
Chemosphere. 2021 Feb 15 ;275:129985. Epub 2021 Feb 15. PMID: 33640742
Renata M P Freitas
Tebuconazole (TEB) is a triazole fungicide widely used in agriculture known to cause metabolic and endocrine disorders in mammals. Several plant extracts have shown to be beneficial against pesticide effects due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. As fruit bats play a critical role in rainforest regeneration and are constantly exposed to pesticides, we aimed at evaluating TEB-induced toxicity and the possible protective effect of the Ficus carica plant extract in Neotropical fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus). Bats were captured and assigned to 4 experimental groups, offered: 1) CTL (n = 6): papaya; 2) DMSO (n = 6): papaya treated with 1.25% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); 3) TEB (n = 6): papaya treated with tebuconazole (commercial formulation) 0.1%; and 4) TEBFC (n = 6): papaya treated with tebuconazole 0.1% and Ficus carica extract (20%) in DMSO (1.25%). After seven days ofexposure, TEB bats showed increased lipid peroxidation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, vascular congestion and inflammatory infiltrate in the liver, and increased serum transaminase enzyme activities. We found the same alterations in oxidative stress parametersin the breast muscles of TEB-exposed bats. In the testes, all oxidative stress markers were increased in TEB bats and corroborate findings of histopathological and increased serum testosterone levels observed following TEB exposure. The co-administration of the fungicide with the F. carica plant extract attenuated most oxidative stress markers in exposed bats' liver and testes and decreased liver damage, but failed to revert the steroid imbalance caused by the fungicide exposure.