Therapeutic prospects of hydroxytyrosol on experimentally induced diabetic testicular damage: potential interplay with AMPK expression.
Cell Tissue Res. 2019 Dec 14. Epub 2019 Dec 14. PMID: 31838605
Amira E Alsemeh
Male reproductive dysfunction represents one of the overlooked consequences of diabetes that still deserve more scientific attention. We designed this study to explore the therapeutic potential of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on diabetic testicular damage and to investigate its relationship with adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression. In this context, 30 adult male Wistar rats were utilized and subdivided into control, diabetic and HT-treated diabetic groups. Testicular sections were prepared for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, Sertoli cell vimentin, myoid cellα-SMA, androgen receptors and caspase-3. We also assessed oxidative enzymatic and lipid peroxidation biochemical profiles, sperm count, morphology and motility. Real-time PCR of AMPK expression in tissue homogenate was performed. We observed that HT restored testicular histopathological structure and significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage and the apoptotic index. The HT-treated group also exhibited significantly higher Sertoli cell vimentin, myoid cell α-SMA and androgen receptor immune expression than the diabetic group. A rescue of the oxidative enzymatic activity, lipid peroxidation profiles, sperm count, morphology and motility to control levels was also evident in the HT-treated group. Significant upregulation of AMPK mRNA expression in the HT-treated group clarified the role of AMPK as an underlying molecular interface of the ameliorative effects of HT. We concluded that HT exhibited tangible antioxidant and antiapoptotic impacts on the testicular cytomorphological and immunohistochemical effects of experimentally induced diabetes. Furthermore, AMPK has an impactful role in the molecular machinery of these effects.