Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Olive Oil Hydroxytyrosol and Its 5--Lipoyl Conjugate in Protecting Human Erythrocytes from Mercury Toxicity.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 ;2018:9042192. Epub 2018 Apr 12. PMID: 29849921
Oxidative stress is one of the underlying mechanisms of the toxic effects exerted by mercury (Hg) on human health. Several antioxidant compounds, including the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT), were investigated for their protective action. Recently, we have reported that 5--lipoylhydroxytyrosol (Lipo-HT) has shown increased antioxidant activities compared to HT and exerted potent protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines. In this study, the effects of Lipo-HT and HT on oxidative alterations of human erythrocytes induced by exposure to 40 M HgClwere comparatively evaluated. When administered to the cells, Lipo-HT (5-20 M) proved nontoxic and it decreased the Hg-induced generation of ROS, the hemolysis, and the depletion of intracellular GSH levels. At all tested concentrations, Lipo-HT exhibited higher ability to counteract Hg-induced cytotoxicity compared to HT. Model studies indicated the formation of a mercury complex at the SH group of Lipo-HT followed by a redox reaction that would spare intracellular GSH. Thus, the enhanced erythrocyte protective action of Lipo-HT from Hg-induced damage with respect to HT is likely due to an effective chelating and reducing ability toward mercury ions. These findings encourage the use of Lipo-HT in nutraceutical strategies to contrast heavy metal toxicity in humans.