The Neuromodulatory Effects ofω-3 Fatty Acids and Nano-Curcumin on the COX-2/ iNOS Network in Migraines: A Clinical Trial Study from Gene Expression to Clinical Symptoms.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2019 ;19(6):874-884. PMID: 30760195
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common neuroinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of pain. Human and experimental models of migraine studies have demonstrated the role played by COX-2/ iNOS in migraine's neuroinflammatory pathogenesis. COX-2 and iNOS are closely linked and both contribute to inflammation and neurogenic pain in the central nervous system. Omega- 3 fatty acids and curcumin, an active polyphenol of turmeric, have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects through several mechanisms, including the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS gene expression, as well as their serum levels. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the nutrigenomic effects ofω-3 fatty acids, nano-curcumin, and a combination of the two, on neuroinflammation and clinical symptoms in migraine patients.
METHODS: This study reports the results of a clinical trial over a 2-month period, involving 74 episodic migraine patients who receivedω-3 fatty acids, nano-curcumin, a combination of them, or a placebo. At the start and end of the study, the expression of COX-2/iNOS (in peripheral mononuclear blood cells isolated from patients) and COX-2/iNOS serum levels were measured, using real-time PCR and ELISA respectively. The frequency, severity and duration of pain attacks were also recorded.
RESULTS: The results of the present trial showed thatω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin can reinforce each other's effects in the downregulation of COX-2/iNOS mRNA, as well as reduce their serum levels. In addition, the combination of ω-3 and nano-curcumin significantly reduced the frequency, severity and duration of headaches (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that combination therapy ofω-3 fatty acids and nano-curcumin can be considered as a promising new approach in migraine prevention.