Fructooligosaccharides Ameliorating Cognitive Deficits and Neurodegeneration in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice through Modulating Gut Microbiota.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Mar 13 ;67(10):3006-3017. Epub 2019 Feb 28. PMID: 30816709
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to gut microbial alteration. Prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) play major roles by regulating gut microbiota. The present study aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of FOS protection against AD via regulating gut microbiota. Male Apse/PSEN 1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice were administrated with FOS for 6 weeks. Cognitive deficits and amyloid deposition were evaluated. The levels of synaptic plasticity markers including postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and synapsin I, as well as phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), were determined. The intestinal microbial constituent was detected by 16S rRNA sequencing. Moreover, the levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the brain were measured. The results indicated that FOS treatment ameliorated cognitive deficits and pathological changes in the Tg mice. FOS significantly upregulated the expression levels of synapsin I and PSD-95, as well as decreased phosphorylated level of JNK. The sequencing results showed that FOS reversed the altered microbial composition. Furthermore, FOS increased the level of GLP-1 and decreased the level of GLP-1R in the Tg mice. These findings indicated that FOS exerted beneficial effects against AD via regulating the gut microbiota-GLP-1/GLP-1R pathway.