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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Renal tubular injury induced by glyphosate combined with hard water: the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2.

Abstract Source:

Ann Transl Med. 2021 Jan ;9(2):130. PMID: 33569432

Abstract Author(s):

Ruojing Wang, Jing Chen, Fan Ding, Lin Zhang, Xuan Wu, Yi Wan, Jianying Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Qing Wu

Article Affiliation:

Ruojing Wang

Abstract:

Background: The combined effects of glyphosate and hard water on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CDKu) have attracted much interest, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A(cPLA) plays a key role in the acute and chronic inflammatory reactions. This study explored the effect of glyphosate combined with hard water on renal tubules and the possible targets and mechanisms involved.

Methods: experiments were conducted to investigate the synergistic effects and potential mechanisms of glyphosate and hard water on renal tubular injury in mice.

Results: Administration of glyphosate in mice resulted in elevated levels ofβ2-microglobulin (β-MG), albumin (ALB), and serum creatinine (SCr) compared to control mice. This increase was more pronounce when glyphosate was combined with hard water. In the glyphosate-treated mice, small areas of the kidney revealed fibroblast proliferation and vacuolar degeneration, particularly at the higher dose of 400 mg/kg glyphosate. However, the combination of glyphosate and hard water induced an even greater degree of pathological changes in the kidney. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses showed that glyphosate and hard water had a coordinated effect on calcium ions (Ca)-activated phospholipase Aand the activation may play a key role in inflammation and renal tubular injury. Exposure to glyphosate alone or glyphosate plus hard water increased the levels of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory biomarkers, namely, thromboxane A(TX-A), leukotriene B(LTB), prostaglandin E(PGE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and nitric oxide (NO). Parameters of oxidative stress, including the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were decreased. Further analysis showed that the levels of these biomarkers were significantly different between the mice treated with glyphosate plus hard water and the mice treated with glyphosate alone.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that hard water combined with glyphosate can induce renal tubular injury in mice, and this may involve mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/cytosolic phospholipase A(cPLA)/arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream factors.

Study Type : Animal Study

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