Xanthohumol Prevents DNA Damage by Dietary Carcinogens: Results of a Human Intervention Trial.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Dec 6. Epub 2016 Dec 6. PMID: 27923802
Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop flavonoid contained in beers and soft drinks. In vitro and animal studies indicated that XN has DNA and cancer protective properties. To find out if it causes DNA protective effects in humans, an intervention trial was conducted in which the participants (n = 22) consumed a XN containing drink (12 mg XN/P/d). We monitored prevention of DNA damage induced by representatives of major groups of dietary carcinogens [i.e., nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)]. Lymphocytes were collected before, during, and after the intervention and incubated with the carcinogens and with human liver homogenate (S9). We found substantial reduction of B(a)P and IQ (P<0.001 for both substances) induced DNA damage after consumption of the beverage; also, with the nitrosamine a moderate, but significant protective effect was found. The results of a follow-up trial (n = 10) with XN pills showed that the effects are caused by the flavonoid and were confirmed inγH2AX experiments. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms we measured several parameters of glutathione related detoxification. We found clear induction of α-GST (by 42.8%, P<0.05), but no alteration ofπ-GST. This observation provides a partial explanation for the DNA protective effects and indicates that the flavonoid also protects against other carcinogens that are detoxified by α-GST. Taken together, our findings support the assumption that XN has anticarcinogenic properties in humans. CancerPrev Res; 1-8. ©2016 AACR.