Chemical Profiling of Embelia ribes by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Its Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities In Vitro.
J Chromatogr Sci. 2020 Apr 22 ;58(3):241-250. PMID: 31800022
Embelia ribes is a traditional Chinese medicine compound used as a remedy for various diseases. Nevertheless, detailed information regarding its chemical composition is unavailable. Herein, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize the components of E. ribes. A total of 56 compounds, including 16 phenolics, 16 flavonoids, 4 coumarins, 5 fatty acids and 15 other compounds were identified. Furthermore, the total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also assessed; the acetic ether extract of E. ribes was an ideal source of phenolics (308.16 ± 0.00 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract) and flavonoids (62.00 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalents/g of extract). Additionally, acetic ether extract exhibited a high antioxidation effect (ferric reducing activity power: 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl: 0.18 ± 0.01 mg/mL; 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid: 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Further, the nitric oxide concentration in lipopolysaccharide-simulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were suppressed by acetic ether extract. These findings support the notion that E. ribes is an ideal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.