E-Cigarettes Increase Candida albicans Growth and Modulate its Interaction with Gingival Epithelial Cells.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 21 ;16(2). Epub 2019 Jan 21. PMID: 30669681
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vapor comes in contact with the different constituents of the oral cavity, including such microorganisms as. We examined the impact of e-cigarettes ongrowth and expression of different virulent genes, such as secreted aspartic proteases (), and the effect of e-cigarette vapor-exposedon gingival epithelial cell morphology, growth, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. An increase ingrowth was observed with nicotine-rich e-cigarettes compared with non-exposed cultures. Following exposure to e-cigarette vapor,produced high levels of chitin. E-cigarettes also increasedhyphal length and the expression of,, andgenes. When in contact with gingival epithelial cells, e-cigarette-exposedadhered better to epithelial cells than the control. Indirect contact between e-cigarette-exposedand gingival epithelial cells led to epithelial cell differentiation, reduced cell growth, and increased LDH activity. Overall, results indicate that e-cigarettes may interact withto promote their pathogenesis, which may increase the risk of oral candidiasis in e-cigarette users.