Microbiota Metabolite Butyrate Differentially Regulates Th1 and Th17 Cells' Differentiation and Function in Induction of Colitis.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30918945
BACKGROUND: How the gut microbiota regulates intestinal homeostasis is not completely clear. Gut microbiota metabolite short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to regulate T-cell differentiation. However, the mechanisms underlying SCFA regulation of T-cell differentiation and function remain to be investigated.
METHODS: CBir1, an immunodominant microbiota antigen, transgenic T cells were treated with butyrate under various T-cell polarization conditions to investigate butyrate regulation of T-cell differentiation and the mechanism involved. Transfer of butyrate-treated CBir T cells into Rag1-/- mice was performed to study the in vivo role of such T cells in inducing colitis.
RESULTS: Although butyrate promoted Th1 cell development by promoting IFN-γ and T-bet expression, it inhibited Th17 cell development by suppressing IL-17, Rorα, and Rorγt expression. Interestingly, butyrate upregulated IL-10 production in T cells both under Th1 and Th17 cell conditions. Furthermore, butyrate induced T-cell B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) expression, and deficiency of Blimp1 in T cells impaired the butyrate upregulation of IL-10 production, indicating that butyrate promotes T-cell IL-10 production at least partially through Blimp1. Rag1-/- mice transferred with butyrate-treated T cells demonstrated less severe colitis, comparedwith transfer of untreated T cells, and administration of anti-IL-10R antibody exacerbated colitis development in Rag-/- mice that had received butyrate-treated T cells. Mechanistically, the effects of butyrate on the development of Th1 cells was through inhibition of histone deacetylase but was independent of GPR43.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that butyrate controls the capacity of T cells in the induction of colitis by differentially regulating Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation and promoting IL-10 production, providing insights into butyrate as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.