Effects of R type and S type ginsenoside Rg3 on DNA methylation in human hepatocarcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017 Feb 28. Epub 2017 Feb 28. PMID: 28260016
Ginsenoside Rg3, a bioactive constituent isolated from Panax ginseng, exhibits antitumorigenic, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, neuroprotective and other biological activities are associated with the regulation of multiple genes. DNA methylation patterns, particularly those in the promoter region, affect gene expression, and DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methylases. However, whether ginsenoside Rg3 affects DNA methylation is unknown. High performance liquid chromatography assay, MspI/HpaII polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR were performed to assess DNA methylation. It was demonstrated that 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 treatment resulted in increased inhibition of cell growth, compared with treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in the human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line. It was additionally revealed that treatment with 20(S)‑ginsenoside Rg3 reduced global genomic DNA methylation, altered cystosine methylation of the promoter regions of P53, B cell lymphoma 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and downregulated the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3a and DNMT3b more than treatment with 20(R)‑ginsenoside Rg3 in HepG2 cells. These results revealed that the modulation of DNA methylation may be important in the pharmaceutical activities of ginsenoside Rg3.