These studies demonstrate the potential carcinogenicity of bisphenol F and bisphenol S. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Genome-wide identification of the interactions between key genes and pathways provide new insights into the toxicity of bisphenol F and S during early development in zebrafish.
Chemosphere. 2018 Dec ;213:559-567. Epub 2018 Sep 21. PMID: 30265984
Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been widely used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA). With their increasing use, BPF and BPS have also been released into the environment; thus, their potential risks to aquatic organisms and humans are drawing attention. The objective of this study was to identify the interactions between key pathways and hub genes in zebrafish following BPF and BPS exposure, and to evaluate the potential risks to human health. We identified three key pathways using KEGG over-representation test and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA): 'Necroptosis,' 'Adipocytokine signaling pathway,' and 'C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway.' Moreover, three hub genes (mst1ra, prkcdb, and pik3cb) and detailed interactions among the pathways were examined by the analyses of PPI network, subcellular location, and shortest-pathway. Surprisingly, all three pathways were strongly associated with a potential risk of cancer, as reported previously. In addition, the results of KOBAS shown in 'Pathways in Cancer' and 'Cancers' belong to the top 10 terms in pathway enrichment analyses using genes related to BPF or BPS in human, as was found using GenCLiP. Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed using homologenes (MST1R, PIK3CB and PRKCD) of hub genes in human to evaluate whether exposure to bisphenols may adversely affect breast cancer. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential carcinogenicity of BPF and BPS. To our knowledge, this is the first study on three overlapping key pathways and three hub genes to investigate BPF and BPS exposure-related mechanisms and subsequent interactions in zebrafish.