Protective Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity Induced by Chronic and Moderate Alcoholism.
Alcohol Alcohol. 2016 Jan ;51(1):1-10. Epub 2015 Aug 19. PMID: 26589585
AIMS: Heavy alcohol intake depletes the plasma vitamins due to hepatotoxicity and decreased intestinal absorption. However, moderate alcohol intake is often thought to be healthy. Therefore, effects of chronic moderate alcohol intake on liver and intestine were studied using urinary vitamin levels. Furthermore, effects of Tinospora cordifolia water extract (TCE) (hepatoprotective) on vitamin excretion and intestinal absorption were also studied.
METHODS: In the study, asymptomatic moderate alcoholics (n = 12) without chronic liver disease and healthy volunteers (n = 14) of mean age 39± 2.2 (mean ± SD) were selected and divided into three groups. TCE treatment was performed for 14 days. The blood and urine samples were collected on Day 0 and 14 after treatment with TCE and analyzed.
RESULTS: In alcoholics samples, a significant increase in the levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, HDL and LDL (P<0.05) was observed but their level get downregulated after TCE intervention. Multivariate analysis of metabolites without missing values showed an increased excretion of 7-dehydrocholesterol, orotic acid, pyridoxine, lipoamide and niacin and TCE intervention depleted their levels (P<0.05). In contrast, excretion of biotin, xanthine, vitamin D2 and 2-O-p-coumaroyltartronic acid (CA, an internal marker of intestinal absorption) were observed to be decreased in alcoholic samples; however, TCE intervention restored the CA and biotin levels. Vitamin metabolism biomarkers, i.e. homocysteine and xanthurenic acid, were also normalized after TCE intervention.
CONCLUSION: Overall data depict that moderate alcohol intake is also hepatotoxic and decreases intestinal absorption. However, TCE treatment effectively increased the intestinal absorption and retaining power of liver that regulated alcohol-induced multivitamin deficiency.