γ-Tocotrienol and α-Tocopherol Ether Acetate Enhance Docetaxel Activity in Drug-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.
Molecules. 2020 Jan 18 ;25(2). Epub 2020 Jan 18. PMID: 31963634
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, and metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Prostate cancer frequently becomes resistant to standard of care treatments, and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs is often accompanied by toxic side effects. Combination therapy is one tool that can be used to combat therapeutic resistance and drug toxicity. Vitamin E (VE) compounds and analogs have been proposed as potential non-toxic chemotherapeutics. Here we modeled combination therapy using mixture design response surface methodology (MDRSM), a statistical technique designed to optimize mixture compositions, to determine whether combinations of three chemotherapeutic agents:γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3), α-tocopherol ether acetate (α-TEA), and docetaxel (DOC), would prove more effective than docetaxel alone in the treatment of human prostate cancer cells. Response surfaces were generated for cell viability, and the optimal treatment combination for reducing cell viability was calculated. We found that a combination of 20 µM γ-T3, 30 µM α-TEA, and 25 nm DOC was most effective in the treatment of PC-3 cells. We also found that the combination of γ-T3 and α-TEA with DOC decreased the amount of DOC required to reduce cell viability in PC-3 cells and ameliorated therapeutic resistance in DOC-resistant PC-3 cells.