Transgenerational effects on intestinal inflammation status in mice perinatally exposed to bisphenol S.
Chemosphere. 2021 Jan ;262:128009. Epub 2020 Sep 7. PMID: 33182144
Increasing evidence has highlighted the critical role of early life environment in shaping the future health outcomes of individuals in subsequent generations. Bisphenol S (BPS) has been widely used as a substitute for various plastic materials due to the limited application of Bisphenol A (BPA) which is an endocrine disruptor. However, the lack of efficient evaluation of BPS leaves doubts about the relevant substitute of BPA. Few studies of transgenerational inheritance have examined the effects of environmental exposures to endocrine disruptors on the immune system. In this study, we analyzed the transgenerational effects of BPS on intestinal inflammation and its consequence in metabolism. In this study, only F0 pregnant mice were exposed to BPS (1.5 μg/kg bw/day) from gestational day 0 until weaning of offspring. In this work, both F1 and F2 male offspring developed an inflammatory response in the ileum and colon at adulthood after F0 mothers were exposed to BPS; this phenomenon disappeared in F3. This inflammatory response in F1 male offspring is associated with a significant decrease of blood cholesterol without modification of metabolic status. Further, in F3 offspring male, the decrease of gut inflammatory response is associated with a decrease of fat weight and with an increase of blood glucose and cholesterol level. A sex-specific profile is observed in female offspring. We also observed that early life exposure to BPS was associated with strong abnormal intestinal immune status. The study presented here demonstrates that the immune system, like other organ systems, is vulnerable to transgenerational effects caused by environmental exposures.