Anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized triterpenoid-rich fraction isolated from Rubus coreanus on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-induced macrophages.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Dec 2 ;158 Pt A:291-300. Epub 2014 Oct 30. PMID: 25446582
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rubus coreanus Miquel (Rosaceae), the Korean black raspberry, has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory diseases including diarrhea, asthma, stomach ailment, and cancer. Although previous studies showed that the 19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoids isolated from Rubus coreanus exerted anti-inflammatory activities, their effects on ulcerative colitis and mode of action have not been explored. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms involving19α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid-rich fraction from Rubus coreanus (TFRC) on a mice model of colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by DSS for 7 days in ICR mice. Disease activity indices (DAI) took into account body weight, stool consistency, and gross bleeding. Histological changes and macrophage accumulation were observed by immunohistochemical analysis. Pro-inflammatory markers were determined using immunoassays, RT-PCR, and real time PCR. Signaling pathway involving nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation was determined by luciferase assay and Western blotting.
RESULTS: In DSS-induced colitis mice, TFRC improved DAIs and pathological characteristics including colon shortening and colonic epithelium injury. TFRC suppressed tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced macrophage infiltration into colonic tissues. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, TFRC inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by down-regulating the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that TFRC has potent anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colonic injury and LPS-induced macrophage activation, and supports its possible therapeutic and preventive roles in colitis.