Abstract Title:

Use of citric acid and garlic extract to inhibit Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in hummus.

Abstract Source:

Int J Food Microbiol. 2022 Feb 2 ;362:109474. Epub 2021 Nov 9. PMID: 34781080

Abstract Author(s):

Amin N Olaimat, Murad A Al-Holy, Mahmoud H Abu Ghoush, Anas A Al-Nabulsi, Tareq M Osaili, Mutamed Ayyash, Yahya S Al-Degs, Richard A Holley

Article Affiliation:

Amin N Olaimat


Recently, the consumption of hummus has become popular in the United States, European countries, and Canada, and unfortunately, several foodborne outbreaks and recalls have been reported due to its contamination with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. The current study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% citric acid (CA) and 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% garlic extract (GE) toward S. enterica and L. monocytogenes in hummus stored at 4, 10 and 24 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated (control) hummus samples at all tested temperatures, whereas S. enterica grew only at 10 and 24 °C. CA at 0.5 to 1.5% reduced L. monocytogenes numbers by 3.0-3.3 log CFU/g at 4 °C, 1.7-3.9 log CFU/g at 10 °C, and 0.9-1.4 log CFU/g at 24 °C. Numbers of S. enterica were reduced by 0.6-1.7, 4.1-4.9 and<1.5 log CFU/g, at 4, 10 and 24 °C, respectively, compared to the control during 10 d storage. GE at 1.0-3.0% also reduced numbers of L. monocytogenes at 10 d by 0.7-3.0, and 1.3-3.6 log CFU/g at 4 and 10 °C, respectively, and numbers of S. enterica by 0.7-1.2, 1.8-2.6 and 0.5-1.6 log CFU/g, at 4, 10 and 24 °C, respectively, compared to the control. Chromatographic analysis of GE revealed the presence of four organosulfur compounds including diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, 2-vinyl-(4H)-1,3-dithiin and 3-vinyl-(4H)-1,2-dithiin where the latter was the predominant compound with a level of 22.9 mg/g which significantly contributed to the inhibitory effect of GE. CA and GE are adequate natural antimicrobials in hummus to reduce L. monocytogenes and S. enterica numbers and enhance product safety.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

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