Utilizing Liposomal Quercetin and Gallic Acid in Localized Treatment of VaginalInfections.
Pharmaceutics. 2019 Dec 20 ;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 20. PMID: 31861805
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a widely spread fungal infection that causes itching, pain and inflammation at the vaginal site. Although common, currently available treatment suffers from limited efficacy and high recurrence. In addition, the growing problem of resistance to azole drugs used in current treatments emphasizes the need for superior treatment options. Antimicrobial polyphenols are an attractive approach offering multitargeting therapy. We aimed to develop novel liposomes for simultaneous delivery of two polyphenols (quercetin, Q, and gallic acid, GA) that, when released within the vaginal cavity, act in synergy to eradicate infection while alleviating the symptoms of VVC. Q was selected for its anti-itching and anti-inflammatory properties, while GA for its reported activity against. Novel liposomes containing only Q (LP-Q), only GA (LP-GA) or both polyphenols (LP-Q+GA) were in the size range around 200 nm. Q was efficiently entrapped in both LP-Q and in LP-Q+GA (85%) while the entrapment of GA was higher in LP-Q+GA (30%) than in LP-GA (25%). Liposomes, especially LP-Q+GA, promoted sustained release of both polyphenols. Q and GA acted in synergy, increasing the antioxidant activities of a single polyphenol. Polyphenol-liposomes were not cytotoxic and displayed stronger anti-inflammatory effects than free polyphenols. Finally, LP-GA and LP-Q+GA considerably reducedgrowth.