Vitamin D attenuates human gingival fibroblast inflammatory cytokine production following advanced glycation end product interaction with receptors for AGE.
J Periodontal Res. 2019 Apr ;54(2):154-163. Epub 2018 Oct 8. PMID: 30295316
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D [1,25(OH)Dor 1,25D3] is critical in musculoskeletal health, inflammation, immune response, and glucose metabolism. Patients with vitamin D deficiency may be at higher risk of diabetes and periodontitis. Diabetic patients exhibit exacerbated inflammation and more periodontal destruction. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during diabetic hyperglycemia, activate inflammatory pathways in periodontitis. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) express receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) and can contribute to inflammation.
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether glycated human serum albumin (G-HSA) augments HGF IL-6 and IL-8 production, and whether treatment with 1,25D3 attenuates cytokine production following stimulation with G-HSA + IL-1β and/or IL-17.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: HGFs were incubated±G-HSA or normal human serum albumin (HSA), ±IL-1β and/or IL-17, ±1,25D3. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Neutralizing anti-RAGE was used to assess AGE-RAGE interaction. Endotoxin was measured using the ToxinSensor™ System. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons.
RESULTS: G-HSA or IL-1β, but not HSA, significantly stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production. G-HSA or HSA when combined with IL-1β or IL-1β + IL-17 synergistically stimulated IL-6 and IL-8. Neutralizing anti-RAGE inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 produced by cells stimulated with IL-1β + G-HSA but not (+HSA). Synergism causedby HSA did not appear to be mediated by endotoxin since its levels in G-HSA and HSA were not sufficient to stimulate fibroblasts. Vitamin D inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 production stimulated by G-HSA or HSA + IL-1β or IL-1β + IL-17.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the"perioprotective"effects of vitamin D are related to its ability to regulate inflammatory cytokine production by HGFs following AGE-RAGE interaction.