900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: protection by vitamins E and C.
Toxicol Ind Health. 2007 Aug ;23(7):411-20. PMID: 18536493
There are numerous reports on the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in various cellular systems. Mechanisms of adverse effects of EMR indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in the biological effects of this radiation. The aims of this study were to examine 900 MHz mobile phone-induced oxidative stress that promotes production of ROS and to investigate the role of vitamins E and C, which have antioxidant properties, on endometrial tissue against possible 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment in rats. The animals were randomly grouped (eight each) as follows: 1) Control group (without stress and EMR, Group I), 2) sham-operated rats stayed without exposure to EMR (exposure device off, Group II), 3) rats exposed to 900 MHz EMR (EMR group, Group III) and 4) a 900 MHz EMR exposed + vitamin-treated group (EMR + Vit group, Group IV). A 900 MHz EMR was applied to EMR and EMR + Vit group 30 min/day, for 30 days using an experimental exposure device. Endometrial levels of nitric oxide (NO, an oxidant product) and malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), increased in EMR exposed rats while the combined vitamins E and C caused a significant reduction in the levels of NO and MDA. Likewise, endometrial superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities decreased in EMR exposed animals while vitamins E and C caused a significant increase in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In the EMR group histopathologic changes in endometrium, diffuse and severe apoptosis was present in the endometrial surface epithelial and glandular cells and the stromal cells. Diffuse eosinophilic leucocyte and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in the endometrial stroma whereas the combination of vitamins E and C caused a significant decrease in these effects of EMR. It is concluded that oxidative endometrial damage plays an important role in the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial impairment and the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduces the 900 MHz mobile phone-induced endometrial damage both at biochemical and histological levels.