In vitro assessment of eryptotic potential of tetrabromobisphenol A and other bromophenolic flame retardants.
Chemosphere. 2018 Sep 29 ;215:404-412. Epub 2018 Sep 29. PMID: 30336317
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrabromobisphenol S (TBBPS) as well as bromophenols, i.e. 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) and pentabromophenol (PBP) have raised wide concerns due to their widespread occurrence in the environment and adverse effects observed in living organisms including human. The effect of BFRs on apoptosis of human erythrocytes has not been examined, that is why we have decided to assess eryptotic potential of these substances by determining changes in phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, alterations in intracellular ROS and calcium ion levels, as well as caspase-3 and calpain activation in this cell type. It has been found that all BFRs studied even in the concentration of 0.001 μg/mL induced ROS formation. The compounds examined caused apoptosis by PS externalization and caspase-3 activation in human red blood cells. It has also been shown that calcium ions and calpain did not play a significant role in eryptosis induction by BFRs studied in human erythrocytes.