Xanthohumol targets the ERK1/2‑Fra1 signaling axis to reduce cyclin D1 expression and inhibit non‑small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2020 Jul 20. Epub 2020 Jul 20. PMID: 32945473
High expression of cyclin D1 has a crucial role in the maintenance of unlimited cell growth in human cancer cells. The present study indicated that cyclin D1 was overexpressed in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues and cell lines. Knockout of cyclin D1 suppressed NSCLC cell growth, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth. Of note, the natural product xanthohumol (Xanth) inhibited NSCLC cells via the downregulation of cyclin D1. A further mechanistic study revealed that Xanth suppressed ERK1/2 signaling and reduced the protein levels of FOS‑related antigen 1 (Fra1), which eventually inhibited the transcriptional activity of activator protein‑1 and decreased the mRNA level of cyclin D1. Furthermore, suppression of ERK1/2 impaired Fra1 phosphorylationand enhanced Xanth‑induced Fra1 ubiquitination and degradation. In addition, the S265D mutation compromised Xanth‑induced Fra1 degradation. Finally, the in vivo anti‑tumor effect of Xanth was validated in a xenograft mouse model. In summary, the present results indicated that targeting ERK1/2‑Fra1‑cyclin D1 signaling is a promising anti‑tumor strategy for NSCLC treatment.