Xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana andα-mangostin improve the spatial learning and memory of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2020 Nov ;72(11):1629-1644. Epub 2020 Aug 2. PMID: 32743849
OBJECTIVES: Xanthones isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective effect.
METHODS: In this study, the effect of xanthone-enriched fraction of Garcinia mangostana (XEFGM) andα-mangostin (α-MG) were investigated on cognitive functions of the chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) rats.
KEY FINDINGS: HPLC analysis revealed that XEFGM contained 55.84% ofα-MG. Acute oral administration of XEFGM (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and α-MG (25 and 50 mg/kg) before locomotor activity and Morris water maze (MWM) tests showed no significant difference between the groups for locomotor activity.
CONCLUSIONS: However,α-MG (50 mg/kg) and XEFGM (100 mg/kg) reversed the cognitive impairment induced by CCH in MWM test. α-MG (50 mg/kg) was further tested upon sub-acute 14-day treatment in CCH rats. Cognitive improvement was shown in MWM test but not in long-term potentiation (LTP). BDNF but not CaMKII was foundto be down-regulated in CCH rats; however, both parameters were not affected by α-MG. In conclusion, α-MG ameliorated learning and memory deficits in both acute and sub-acute treatments in CCH rats by improving the spatial learning but not hippocampal LTP. Hence, α-MG may be a promising lead compound for CCH-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.