Youth with type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk of air pollution-related inflammation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Inflammation and acute traffic-related air pollution exposures among a cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes.
Environ Int. 2019 11 ;132:105064. Epub 2019 Aug 13. PMID: 31419765
Robin C Puett
BACKGROUND: Evidence remains equivocal regarding the association of inflammation, a precursor to cardiovascular disease, and acute exposures to ambient air pollution from traffic-related particulate matter. Though youth with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, the relationship of inflammation and ambient air pollution exposures in this population has received little attention.
OBJECTIVES: Using five geographically diverse US sites from the racially- and ethnically-diverse SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort, we examined the relationship of acute exposures to PMmass, Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS)-Roads traffic-related PM concentrations near roadways, and elemental carbon (EC) with biomarkers of inflammation including interleukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen.
METHODS: Baseline questionnaires and blood were obtained at a study visit. Using a spatio-temporal modeling approach, pollutant exposures for 7 days prior to blood draw were assigned to residential addresses. Linear mixed models for each outcome and exposure were adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors identified a priori.
RESULTS: Among the 2566 participants with complete data, fully-adjusted models showed positive associations of EC average week exposures with IL-6 and hs-CRP, and PMmass exposures on lag day 3 with IL-6 levels. Comparing the 25th and 75th percentiles of average week EC exposures resulted in 8.3% higher IL-6 (95%CI: 2.7%,14.3%) and 9.8% higher hs-CRP (95%CI: 2.4%,17.7%). We observed some evidence of effect modification for the relationships of PMmass exposures with hs-CRP by gender and with IL-6 by race/ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of inflammation were associated with estimated traffic-related air pollutant exposures in this study population of youth with type 1 diabetes. Thus youth with type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk of air pollution-related inflammation. These findings and the racial/ethnic and gender differences observed deserve further exploration.