Effect of Zataria multiflora on serum cytokine levels and pulmonary function tests in sulfur mustard-induced lung disorders: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Nov 7:112325. Epub 2019 Nov 7. PMID: 31707049
Mohammad Reza Khazdair
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) belongs to the Lamiaceae family and has several traditional uses owing to its antiseptic, aesthetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, and antidiarrheal properties.
AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the effect of Z. multiflora on serum cytokine levels and pulmonary function tests (PFT) in patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM) for a long term (27-30 years).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients were randomly assigned to the placebo group (P) and two experimental groups treated with Z. multiflora extracts, i.e., 5 and 10 mg/kg/day (Z5 and Z10). Serum levels of cytokines including IL (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) and IFN-γ as well as PFT indices such as maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) and maximum expiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% of vital capacity (VC) (MEF25, 50, and 75) were assessed at the beginning (phase 0) and at the end of 4 and 8 weeks (phases I and II, respectively) after starting the treatment.
RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly decreased, while serum levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the Z5 and Z10 treatment groups in phases I and II as compared to those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). MMEF and MEF25, 50, and 75 values were significantly increased in the Z5 group in phase II and in the Z10 group in phases I and II compared to those in phase 0 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The percent change in serum cytokine levels and the change in MEF25, 50, and 75 during the two-month treatment period were significantly higher in the treatment groups than in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: Two months of treatment with Z. multiflora reduced inflammation, while it enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines and improved PFT indices in SM-exposed patients.