Aloe Vera the Medicinal House Plant

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While this plant is fairly common and well-known for its role in sunburn recovery, Aloe Vera is not content taking care of only one or two issues. This plant is a wonderful healing substance with plenty of uses

Aloe Vera, the Medicinal House Plant

I must have been day dreaming last week when I poured hot water on my hand instead of into the tea pot. Needless to say, this really hurt. I immediately plunged the hand into a pitcher of ice water for relief, and it did feel a lot better, but the pain returned every time I removed the hand from the ice water. Hot water burns are no fun.

Finally I settled down, and remembered we had some Aloe Vera plants growing in the back yard for the expressed purpose of treating skin burns and cuts. I walked out to the back yard to inspect Aloe Vera planter which is now overgrown. I cut off a nice aloe leaf with my pocket knife and split the leaf to expose the inner gel, which was then applied to my hand. Amazingly, I experienced immediate pain relief, and the burn healed fairly quickly.

Ignored in the Back Yard for Years

I then realized that all these years, I had been ignoring the medicinal benefits of Aloe growing in my own back yard. The Aloe plant had far more medicinal benefits than I had considered. I thought: "If Aloe could relieve pain and speed healing of skin burns, what are the medical benefits of ingesting Aloe as an oral preparation?"

Trying Aloe as a Drink

So I decided to try drinking the Aloe. I sliced off a few more Aloe leaves, and then ran them through our masticating juicer. The central gel is a transparent slimy substance. Small amounts of the green rind also came out into the mix. I then placed about half a cup of the gel into my blender along with some frozen cherries, protein powder and hemp oil, and made a protein shake smoothie. The concoction had a definite anti-inflammatory effect. Lingering body aches and pains were relieved. There was also a beneficial effect on digestion. 

Other Medicinal Benefits

Depending on the exact component of aloe, whether the green skin, or inner gel, other medicinal benefits have been reported. Aloe has an anti-inflammatory effect, anti-microbial effect, anti-cancer effect, anti-glycemic effect, and heals skin, and bone rapidly. (1-30)

Topical Aloe for Skin Conditions

Dr. Zari found topical Aloe useful in eczema. (5) Dr. Goudarzi found Aloe effective against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas in burn wound Infections. (6) Dr López found the leaf skin extract had anti-mycoplsma activity. (7)

Anti-Cancer Activity of Aloe

In a study involving 240 patients with metastatic cancer, those treated with aloe fared better with improved survival. (8) The authors state:

The percentage of both objective tumor regressions and disease control was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Aloe than with chemotherapy alone, as well as the percent of 3-year survival patients.(8)

There is a case report of ocular surface cancer cured with topical aloe drops. (31) There are many other plants which have anti-cancer activity.(9)

Aloe has been studied and found effective against breast cancer cell lines (10), neuroectodermal tumors (11), glioma cells (13) and lung cancer cells (15) by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Emodin, an ingredient in aloe, induces apoptosis in human squamous cell cancer. (17)

Anti-cancer mechanisms were studied. Aloe induces apoptosis via mitochondrial caspace pathways. (33-35)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

In a randomized trial of 44 outpatients with ulcerative colitis, those treated with Aloe Vers 100 ml twice daily for four weeks had improvement while the placebo treated patients did not.(23) The authors state:

Oral aloe vera taken for 4 weeks produced a clinical response more often than placebo; it also reduced the histological disease activity and appeared to be safe.

Curcumin, another natural plant botanical was found effective for maintaining remission in quisacent Ulcerative Colitis (24)

Bone Healing - Improving Bone Density

Researchers found that acemannen in aloe significantly increased markers of bone growth, bone density and mineralization, thus serving as natural biomaterial for bone regeneration. (32)


Doctors found aloe effective as an anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic agent for hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. (40)

Wound Healing

Aloe accelerates cutaneous (skin) wound healing. (41-43)

To learn more about natural, evidence-based benefits for Aloe Vera, use the Research Dashboard: 


1) BAŁAN, BARBARA JOANNA, et al. "Oral administration of Aloe vera gel, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, stimulates cell-mediated immunity and antibody production in a mouse model." Central European Journal of Immunology 39.2 (2014). Aloe_vera_BARBARA_BAŁAN_European_J_Immunology_2014

Aloe gel, the colorless substance obtained from the parenchymatous cells in the fresh leaves of Aloe vera, contains polysaccharides (pectins, hemicelluloses, glucomannan, acemannan, and other mannose derivatives) and it should not be confused with the laxative drug "Aloe" (bitter yellow exudate containing anthracene glycosides, product of specialized resin canal cells in the thick leaf epidermis).

2015 Major Review of Aloe Vera

2) Radha, Maharjan H., and Nampoothiri P. Laxmipriya.
"Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review." Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 5.1 (2015): 21-26.

Various extracts of these Aloe species are traditionally used and their application used to cure arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure, and diabetes.


Yagi, Akira. "Putative prophylaxes of Aloe vera for age-related diseases." Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research 4.1 (2015): 1407-1424.

Aloe vera or resveratrol supplementation in larval diet delayed adult aging in the fruit fly, drosophila melanogaster. Therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera gel high molecular weight fractions for preliminary clinical treatments of type 2 diabetes[3], bed sores[4], hepatic fibrosis[5], and oral lichen planus[6] were widely evaluated.

Entire Book on Aloe Vera:

4) Vera, Aloe. "A Long, Illustrious History-Dating From Biblical Times." click here: aloe_vera_medicinal_plant_book_

Emodin Anti-Inflammatory:

5) Emodin inhibits TNF-induced NF-kB activation Kumar Oncogene 1998

Kumar, Ashok, Subhash Dhawan, and Bharat B. Aggarwal. "Emodin (3-methyl-1, 6, 8-trihydroxyanthraquinone) inhibits TNF-induced NF-kB activation, NF-kB degradation, and expression of cell surface adhesion proteins in human vascular endothelial cells." Oncogene 17.7 (1998): 913-918. "These results indicate that emodin is a potent inhibitor of NF-kB activation and expression of adhesion molecules and thus could be useful in treating various inflammatory diseases."

5) Zari, Shadi T., and Talal A. Zari. "A review of four common medicinal plants used to treat eczema." Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 9.24 (2015): 702-711. medicinal plants eczema Zari J Medicinal Plants 2015

6) Goudarzi, Mehdi, et al. "Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections." Chemotherapy research and practice 2015 (2015). Aloe vera Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn Wound Infections Goudarzi 2015

Leaf Skin:

7) López, Aroa, et al. "Phenolic constituents, antioxidant and preliminary antimycoplasmic activities of leaf skin and flowers of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.(syn. A. barbadensis Mill.) from the Canary Islands (Spain)." Molecules 18.5 (2013): 4942-4954. Antimycoplasmic Activities Aloe Vera López Molecules 2013 Antimycoplasmic activity was only found in the leaf skin extract

(from simple changes in the colony morphology (CCM) as occurred in the case of Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae) or in greater inhibition zones (Acholeplasma laidlawii and Mycoplasma

2009 Cancer Study:

8) Lissoni, Paolo, et al. "A randomized study of chemotherapy versus biochemotherapy with chemotherapy plus Aloe arborescens in patients with metastatic cancer." in vivo 23.1 (2009): 171-175. 

The recent advances in the analysis of tumor immunobiology suggest the possibility of biologically manipulating the efficacy and toxicity of cancer chemotherapy by endogenous or exogenous immunomodulating substances. Aloe is one of the of the most important plants exhibiting anticancer activity and its antineoplastic property is due to at least three different mechanisms, based on antiproliferative, immunostimulatory and antioxidant effects. The antiproliferative action is determined by anthracenic and antraquinonic molecules, while the immunostimulating activity is mainly due to acemannan.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:A study was planned to include 240 patients with metastatic solid tumor who were randomized to receive chemotherapy with or without Aloe. According to tumor histotype and clinical status, lung cancer patients were treated with cisplatin and etoposide or weekly vinorelbine, colorectal cancer patients received oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gastric cancer patients were treated with weekly 5-FU and pancreatic cancer patients received weekly gemcitabine. Aloe was given orally at 10 ml thrice/daily.

RESULTS:The percentage of both objective tumor regressions and disease control was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with Aloe than with chemotherapy alone, as well as the percent of 3-year survival patients.

CONCLUSION:This study seems to suggest that Aloe may be successfully associated with chemotherapy to increase its efficacy in terms of both tumor regression rate and survival time.

Aloe arborescens was given orally at a dose of 10 ml thrice daily of a mixture consisting of 300 g of Aloe fresh leaves in 500 g of honey plus 40 ml of 40% alcohol,

9) Nacci, Giuseppe. "Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo-Therapy." (2008). Thousand Plants against Cancer without Chemo Nacci 2010

2006 Breat Cancer:

10) Cytotoxicity of a natural anthraquinone (Aloin) against human breast cancer cell lines with and without ErbB-2: topoisomerase IIalpha coamplification. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006 Jan;5(1):97-103. Epub 2006 Jan 22. Amr Y Esmat, Catherine Tomasetto, Marie-Christine Rio Aloin against human breast cancer Cancer biology therapy Esmat 2006

2000 Emodin Anti-Cancer:

11) Cancer Res. 2000 Jun 1;60(11):2800-4. Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors.

Pecere T1, Gazzola MV, Mucignat C, Parolin C, Vecchia FD, Cavaggioni A, Basso G, Diaspro A, Salvato B, Carli M, Palù G.

Here we report that aloe-emodin (AE), a hydroxyanthraquinone present in Aloe vera leaves, has a specific in vitro and in vivo antineuroectodermal tumor activity. The growth of human neuroectodermal tumors is inhibited in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency without any appreciable toxic effects on the animals. The compound does not inhibit the proliferation of normal fibroblasts nor that of hemopoietic progenitor cells. The cytotoxicity mechanism consists of the induction of apoptosis, whereas the selectivity against neuroectodermal tumor cells is founded on a specific energy-dependent pathway of drug incorporation. Taking into account its unique cytotoxicity profile and mode of action, AE might represent a conceptually new lead antitumor drug.

As shown in Fig. 4, A and B, ? after 24 h of treatment a relevant proportion of the cells remained in the G2-M phase of the cycle (20%). After 48 h, a sub-G0 peak (60%) was observed, suggestive of the presence of apoptotic cells with fragmented DNA (Fig. 4C ? ). Typical morphological features of apoptotic cell death, with cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and nuclear fragmentation, were also exhibited by most AE-treated cells at TEM analysis. A representative picture of this phenomenon is shown in Fig. 4, D and E?

Here we show that AE, a hydroxyanthraquinone present in Aloe vera leaves, selectively inhibits human neuroectodermal tumor cell growth in tissue cultures and in animal models. Neuroblastoma, pPNET, and Ewing's sarcoma cells were found highly susceptible to AE, whereas human malignant cells from epithelial and blood-derived tumors, as well as human hemopoietic progenitors and normal fibroblasts, were not sensitive to this compound. This is the first report that describes the potential antitumor activity of AE.

2011 Anti-Cancer:

12) Ahirwar, Khemkaran, and Sanmati K. Jain. "Aloe-emodin novel anticancer Herbal Drug." International Journal of Phytomedicine 3.1 (2011): 27-31. Aloe emodin anticancer Herbal Drug Ahirwar Phytomedicine 2011

Emodin Apoptosis - Anti-Cancer Effect:

13) Ismail, Samhani, et al. "Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin." Journal of Asian natural products research 15.9 (2013): 1003-1012.

Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway.

14) Pecere, Teresa, et al. "Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors." Cancer research 60.11 (2000): 2800-2804.

15) Su, Yu-Ting, et al. "Emodin induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway." Biochemical pharmacology 70.2 (2005): 229-241.

16) Srinivas, Gopal, et al. "Molecular mechanism of emodin action: transition from laxative ingredient to an antitumor agent." Medicinal research reviews 27.5 (2007): 591-608. Molecular mechanism of emodin antitumor agent Srinivas Medicinal research 2007

17) Lin, Shuw-Yuan, et al. "Emodin induces apoptosis of human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through reactive oxygen species and mitochondria-dependent pathways." Anticancer research 29.1 (2009): 327-335.

Rheum palmatum, commonly called Turkish rhubarb, Turkey rhubarb, Chinese rhubarb, Indian rhubarb, Russian rhubarb or rhubarb root (and within Chinese herbal medicine da-huang).[1]

Emodin was isolated from Rheum palmatum L. and exhibits an anticancer effect on human cancer cell lines, however, the molecular mechanisms of emodin-mediated apoptosis in human tongue cancer cells have not been fully investigated. In this study, treatment of human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells with various concentrations of emodin led to G2/M arrest through promoted p21 and Chk2 expression but inhibited cyclin B1 and cdc2; it also induced apoptosis through the pronounced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activations of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These events were accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and a decrease in the ratio of mitochondrial Bcl-2 and Bax content; emodin also promoted the levels of GADD153 and GRP78. The free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine and caspase inhibitors markedly blocked emodin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that emodin mediated oxidative injury (DNA damage) based on ROS production and ER stress based on the levels of GADD153 and GRP78 that acts as an early and upstream change in the cell death cascade to caspase- and mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction from Bcl-2 and Bax modulation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation, consequently leading to apoptosis in SCC-4 cells.

18) Hsu, Shu-Chun, and Jing-Gung Chung. "Anticancer potential of emodin." BioMedicine 2.3 (2012): 108-116. Anticancer potential of emodin BioMedicine Hsu 2012

19) Huang, Pao-Hsuan, et al. "Emodin and aloe-emodin suppress breast cancer cell proliferation through ERa inhibition." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013). Aloe emodin suppress breast cancer ERα inhibition Huang 2013

20) Ma, Junchao, et al. "The anthraquinone derivative Emodin inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis through downregulating Runx2 activity in breast cancer." International journal of oncology 46.4 (2015): 1619-1628.

21) Emodin - a moving substance  Posted on 22. June 2009 by Vince Giuliano

22) Buy Emodin Powder-

Inflammatory Bowel Disease - UC:

23) Langmead, L., et al. "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis." Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 19.7 (2004): 739-747.

Background : The herbal preparation, aloe vera, has been claimed to have anti-inflammatory effects and, despite a lack of evidence of its therapeutic efficacy, is widely used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Aim : To perform a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of aloe vera gel for the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis.

Methods : Forty-four evaluable hospital out-patients were randomly given oral aloe vera gel or placebo, 100 mL twice daily for 4 weeks, in a 2 : 1 ratio. The primary outcome measures were clinical remission (Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index = 2), sigmoidoscopic remission (Baron score = 1) and histological remission (Saverymuttu score = 1). Secondary outcome measures included changes in the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (improvement was defined as a decrease of =?3 points; response was defined as remission or improvement), Baron score, histology score, haemoglobin, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and albumin.

Results : Clinical remission, improvement and response occurred in nine (30%), 11 (37%) and 14 (47%), respectively, of 30 patients given aloe vera, compared with one (7%) [P = 0.09; odds ratio, 5.6 (0.6-49)], one (7%) [P = 0.06; odds ratio, 7.5 (0.9-66)] and two (14%) [P < 0.05; odds ratio, 5.3 (1.0-27)], respectively, of 14 patients taking placebo. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index and histological scores decreased significantly during treatment with aloe vera (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not with placebo. Sigmoidoscopic scores and laboratory variables showed no significant differences between aloe vera and placebo. Adverse events were minor and similar in both groups of patients.

Conclusion : Oral aloe vera taken for 4 weeks produced a clinical response more often than placebo; it also reduced the histological disease activity and appeared to be safe. Further evaluation of the therapeutic potential of aloe vera gel in inflammatory bowel disease is needed.

Curcumin for UC:

24) Hanai, H., et al. "Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 4.12 (2006): 1502.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Dec;4(12):1502-6. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Curcumin is a biologically active phytochemical substance present in turmeric and has pharmacologic actions that might benefit patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim in this trial was to assess the efficacy of curcumin as maintenance therapy in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC).

METHODS:Eighty-nine patients with quiescent UC were recruited for this randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of curcumin in the prevention of relapse. Forty-five patients received curcumin, 1g after breakfast and 1g after the evening meal, plus sulfasalazine (SZ) or mesalamine, and 44 patients received placebo plus SZ or mesalamine for 6 months. Clinical activity index (CAI) and endoscopic index (EI) were determined at entry, every 2 months (CAI), at the conclusion of 6-month trial, and at the end of 6-month follow-up.

RESULTS:Seven patients were protocol violators. Of 43 patients who received curcumin, 2 relapsed during 6 months of therapy (4.65%), whereas 8 of 39 patients (20.51%) in the placebo group relapsed (P=.040). Recurrence rates evaluated on the basis of intention to treat showed significant difference between curcumin and placebo (P=.049). Furthermore, curcumin improved both CAI (P=.038) and EI (P=.0001), thus suppressing the morbidity associated with UC. A 6-month follow-up was done during which patients in both groups were on SZ or mesalamine. Eight additional patients in the curcumin group and 6 patients in the placebo group relapsed.

CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin seems to be a promising and safe medication for maintaining remission in patients with quiescent UC. Further studies on curcumin should strengthen our findings.

25) Rubel, Barry Lee. "Possible mechanisms of the healing actions of aloe gel." Cosmetics and Toiletries 98 (1983): 109-114. Mechanisms of healing actions of aloe gel Barry Lee Rubel

Aloe for Cancer - Colon:

26) Pan, Qin, et al. "Inhibition of the angiogenesis and growth of Aloin in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Cell Int 13.1 (2013): 69. Inhibition of Angiogenesis Growth Aloin Human Colorectal Cancer_Pan Qin Cancer Cell 2013

27) Lin, Meng‐Liang, et al. "Destabilization of CARP mRNAs by aloé‐emodin contributes to caspasé‐8́‐mediated p53́‐independent apoptosis of human carcinoma cells." Journal of cellular biochemistry 112.4 (2011): 1176-1191.

Collectively, our data indicate AE induces caspase-8-mediated activation of mitochondrial death pathways by decreasing the stability of CARP mRNAs in a p53-independent manner.

28) Chinchilla, Nuria, et al. "Aloe barbadensis: how a miraculous plant becomes reality." Phytochemistry reviews 12.4 (2013): 581-602. Aloe Vera Miraculous Plant Reality Chinchilla Nuria Ceferino Phytochem Rev 2013

Acemannan Immunostimulan tk, a pulp extract rich in mannan, has been licensed for the treatment of fibrosarcoma in cats and dogs.

Excellent Review Article!

29) Harlev, Eli, et al. "Anticancer potential of aloes: Antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes." Planta Med 78.9 (2012): 843-852. Anticancer Aloe Antioxidant antiproliferative immunostimulatory Harlev Eli 2012 Aloe plants exhibit anticancer activity in vitro

(l" Table 1) and in vivo (l" Table 2). Their antineoplastic property is due to at least three different mechanisms based on antiproliferative, immunostimulatory, and antioxidant effects. Over 4000 studies were performed on the effectiveness of Aloe vera in medical treatment, part of which addressed their role in recovery from diagnosed cancer.' Acemannan is the name given to the major carbohydrate fraction, a polysaccharide, or a mixture of polysaccharides, obtained from the gel of the Aloe vera leaf. Acemannan is known to have diverse biological activities, including immunomodulatory and antitumor attributes

30) Tabolacci, Claudio, et al. "Aloe-emodin exerts a potent anticancer and immunomodulatory activity on BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells." European journal of pharmacology 762 (2015): 283-292. Aloe emodin potent anticancer immunomodulatory melanoma Tabolacci Claudio 2015

31) Cornea. 2015 Jan;34(1):87-9. Treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia with topical Aloe veradrops.

Damani MR1, Shah AR, Karp CL, Orlin SE.

To report a case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) that resolved with topical Aloe vera eye drop treatment.

METHODS: A 64-year-old Hispanic woman with a lesion typical for OSSN in her left eye was followed up with multiple clinical examinations and ocular surface photographs to document changes over time with A.vera-based topical treatment.

RESULTS:The patient refused biopsy of her lesion and traditional treatments and, instead, initiated using A. vera eye drops 3 times daily. At follow-up visits, the lesion was noted to regress until it finally resolved 3 months after commencing treatment. No additional topical medications were used, and she has remained tumor free for 6 years.

CONCLUSIONS:Ongoing research is warranted because A. vera may represent a new therapeutic class of medications for OSSN treatment.

Treatment of Osteoporosis:

ACEMANNON - bone formation in a tooth extraction model

32) Odontology. 2014 Jul;102(2):310-7. Effect of acemannan Aloe vera bone formatio tooth model 2014 Effect of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on BMSCs proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, mineralization, and bone formation in a tooth extraction model. Boonyagul S1, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Thunyakitpisal P.

Aloe vera is a traditional wound healing medicine. We hypothesized acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, could affect bone formation. Primary rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were treated with various concentrations of acemannan. New DNA synthesis, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H] thymidine incorporation assay, ELISA, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In an animal study, mandibular right incisors of male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted and an acemannan treated sponge was placed in the socket. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the mandibles were dissected. Bone formation was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histopathological examination. The in vitro results revealed acemannan significantly increased BMSC proliferation, VEGF, BMP-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin expression, and mineralization.

In-vivo results showed acemannan-treated groups had higher bone mineral density and faster bone healing compared with untreated controls. A substantial ingrowth of bone trabeculae was observed in acemannan-treated groups. These data suggest acemannan could function as a bioactive molecule inducing bone formation by stimulating BMSCs proliferation, differentiation into osteoblasts, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Acemannan could be a candidate natural biomaterial for bone regeneration.6-month follow-up was done during which patients in both groups were on SZ or mesalamine. Eight additional patients in the curcumin group and 6 patients in the placebo group relapsed.

CONCLUSIONS:Curcumin seems to be a promising and safe medication for maintaining remission in patients with quiescent UC. Further studies on curcumin should strengthen our findings.

Anti-cancer EModin:

33) Mulakayala, Chaitanya, et al. "Design and evaluation of new chemotherapeutics of aloe-emodin (AE) against the deadly cancer disease: an in silico study." Journal of chemical biology 6.3 (2013): 141-153. We found that AE by directly or indirectly activating Bax induces the activation of apoptosis in cancer cells

activation of Bax leads to the release of cytochrome C and other pro-apoptotic molecules further which leads to apoptosis AE, a hydroxyanthraquinone present in A. vera leaves, inhibits tumor cell growth by activating apoptosis.

34) Yeh, Feng‐Tsgh, Chun‐Hsiung Wu, and Hong‐Zin Lee. "Signaling pathway for aloe‐emodin‐induced apoptosis in human H460 lung nonsmall carcinoma cell." International journal of cancer 106.1 (2003): 26-33.

The present study served to investigate the mechanisms of aloeemodin- induced apoptosis on human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cell H460. In summary, our present study demonstrates aloe-emodin induced apoptotic cell death in H460 cells.

35) Lin, Meng-Liang, et al. "Aloe-emodin induces apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway." Cancer letters 291.1 (2010): 46-58.

Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural, biologically active compound from the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, its molecular mechanism of action in the apoptosis induction of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells has not been explored. This study shows that AE induced G2/M phase arrest by increasing levels of cyclin B1 bound to Cdc2, and also caused an increase in apoptosis of NPC cells, which was characterized by morphological changes, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased sub-G1 population. Treatment of NPC cells with AE also resulted in a decrease in Bcl-XL and an increase in Bax expression. Ectopic expression of Bcl-XL but not Bcl-2 or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated attenuation of Bax suppressed AE-induced apoptotic cell death. AE-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase in cellular Ca++ content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic cell death were suppressed by the treatment of cyclosporin A (CsA) or caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK. Co-treatment with caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK could inhibit AE-induced cell death and the activation of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, suppression of caspase-8 with the specific inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK inhibited AE-induced the activation of Bax, the cleavage of Bid, the translocation of tBid to the mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Endo G from the mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that the caspase-8-mediated activation of the mitochondrial death pathway plays a critical role in AE-induced apoptosis of NPC cells.

Black Seed Oil - Thymoquinone:

36) Woo, Chern Chiuh, et al. "Thymoquinone: potential cure for inflammatory disorders and cancer." Biochemical pharmacology 83.4 (2012): 443-451. Thymoquinone potential cure for inflammatory disorders and cancer Woo 2012

37) Ahmad, Aftab, et al. "A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb." Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 3.5 (2013): 337-352.


38) Boudreau, Mary Durand, et al. "Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity by a Whole Leaf Extract of Aloe barbadenis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N Rats." Toxicological Sciences (2012): kfs275.

Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.

Aloe-Emodin Inhibits Colon Cancer:

39) Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(14):5587-92. Inhibitory effects of low-dose aloe-emodin on the development of colorectal tumors in min mice. Shimpo K1, Chihara T, Kaneko T, Beppu H, Wakamatsu K, Shinzato M, Yukitake J, Sonoda S.

Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone compound, has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of AE in an Apc-deficient Min mouse model. In the first experiment, male Min mice were fed a basal diet or diets containing 5 ppm AE and 10 ppm AE for 12 weeks. The dietary administration of 5 ppm AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. In a second experiment, we investigated the effects of AE on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in Min mouse treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Female Min mice were administered 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. AE was given to mice in their diet at a dose of 5 or 50 ppm for 5 weeks. Feeding with AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. When proliferation of cells in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was assessed by monoclonal anti-rat Ki-67 antibody (MIB-5) immunohistochemistry in experiments 1 and 2, the AE treatment significantly decreased the mean MIB-5-labeling index. These results suggest that the dietary administration of low-dose AE may have chemopreventive effects against development of colorectal tumors in Min mice, possibly in part by reducing cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa.

Diabetes Lipids:

40) Planta Med. 2012 Mar;78(4):311-6. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Huseini HF1, Kianbakht S, Hajiaghaee R, Dabaghian FH.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 with dyslipidemia is a common disease. Previous studies suggest that aloe (Aloe vera L.) leaf gel may positively affect the blood glucose and lipid levels in dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) type 2 diabetic patients aged 40 to 60 years not using other anti-hyperlipidemic agents and resistant to daily intake of two 5 mg glyburide tablets and two 500 mg metformin tablets, the efficacy and safety of taking aloe gel (one 300 mg capsule every 12 hours for 2 months) combined with the aforementioned drugs in treatment of 30 patients were evaluated and compared with the placebo group (n = 30). The aloe gel lowered the fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and LDL levels significantly (p = 0.036, p = 0.036, p = 0.006, and p = 0.004, respectively) without any significant effects on the other blood lipid levels and liver/kidney function tests (p > 0.05) compared with the placebo at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported. The results suggest that aloe gel may be a safe anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic agent for hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients.

Wound Healing:

41) J Vet Med Sci. 2011 May;73(5):583-9. Epub 2010 Dec 17. The effect of aloe vera oral administration on cutaneous wound healing in type 2 diabetic rats. Atiba A1, Ueno H, Uzuka Y.

Delayed wound healing is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Aloe vera oral administration on open wounds in type 2 diabetic rats. Full thickness open wounds (1.5 × 1.5 cm) were created under general anesthesia on the backs of the rats. These rats were divided into two group, a control group (Group C) and an Aloe vera oral administration group (Group A). Each wound area was measured on days 1, 2, 4 and 8 postwounding. The stages of wound granulation tissues were evaluated histopathologically. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by immunohistochemically. The wounds were significantly contracted in Group A on days 2, 4 and 8 postwounding. Histological results revealed that the inflammatory cell infiltration, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition and epithelialization were promoted in Group A, respectively. The immunohistochemical results revealed that both TGF-β1 and VEGF protein-positive cells increased in Group A on day 4 postwounding. We concluded that Aloe vera oral administration accelerated wound healing in type 2 diabetic rats.

42) Xing, Wei, et al. "Acemannan accelerates cell proliferation and skin wound healing through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway." Journal of Dermatological Science (2015).

43) Am J Surg. 2011 Jun;201(6):809-18. Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production. Atiba A1, Nishimura M, Kakinuma S, Hiraoka T, Goryo M, Shimada Y, Ueno H, Uzuka Y.

Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing.

METHODS: The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group.

CONCLUSIONS: These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production.

Aloe for Apthous Stomatitis, Apthous Ulcers:

44) Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012 Jul;9(4):381-5. Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Babaee N1, Zabihi E, Mohseni S, Moghadamnia AA.

Aphthous ulcer is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity with no known effective treatment so far, which could cause severe discomfort in patients. Aloe vera (A.V.) is a tropical plant with anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects, which could be of benefit in a diversity of wound healing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate topically administered A.V. gel on oral cavity minor aphthous healing.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a double-blind (case control) clinical trial, 40 patients with oral minor aphthous lesions were randomly allocated in either the case group (A.V. gel) or the control (placebo) group. The healing time (days after gel application), patient's pain score; the lesion and its surrounding inflammation diameters were recorded for 2 weeks. The obtained results were analyzed by either "Fishers exact" or t-student test using SPSS software.

RESULTS: The mean (±SD) of patients' age was 29.25 ± 8.48 and 27.95 ± 7.96 years in the control and A.V.-treated groups, respectively, which were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A.V.-treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment.

CONCLUSION: It seems likely that A.V. 2% oral gel is not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients' pain score and wound size but also decreases the aphthous wound healing period.

45) Bhalang, Kanokporn, Pasutha Thunyakitpisal, and Nuttanit Rungsirisatean. "Acemannan Aloe vera Effective Oral Aphthous Ulceration Bhalang 2013 " The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 19.5 (2013): 429-434.


Aloe Augments Immunity:

47) Inflammopharmacology. 2012 Dec;20(6):343-6. Augmented humoral immune response and decreased cell-mediated immunity by Aloe vera in ratsHalder S1, Mehta AK, Mediratta PK.

The present study was performed to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on parameters of humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness following sensitisation by keyhole limpet haemocyanin injection and subsequently challenged by the same. Humoral immunity was assessed by measurement of haemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells.

RESULTS: Aloe vera (400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group, and also significantly enhanced the secondary humoral immune response.

CONCLUSION: Thus, these findings suggest that A. vera can modulate immune response by augmenting secondary humoral immunity and decreasing cell-mediated immunity.

Why Aloe Arborescens? Of the 250 known Aloe varieties, science has recently shown particular interest in Aloe arborescens.

Father Romano Zago:

The Original and ONLY Formula Endorsed by Father Romano Zago. This stabilized aloe arborescens used by Deca Aloe Arborescens US LP is produced from 5-year old Aloe arborescens plants harvested at the proper time, processed by grinding the whole leaf into a liquid without heating, cold pressing or freeze drying in order to retain all the active glucomannan polysaccharides (4%), such as mannose (Acemannan) (2 ml per serving) to provide maximum immune system support.** This product also contains raw, unpasteurized, pesticide-free honey (6.4 g per serving) and 1% alcohol for the purest and best absorption when taken short or long term.

A second group of aloe constituents contain the laxative anthraquinones found in the yellow sap that comes from small tubules in the thick green rind. The yellow sap consist of several potent laxative agents including: Atoin (barbaloin); AloinB (isobarbaloin); Aloe -emodin; and Emodin.  The constituents are chemically known as anthraquinones. These active components of aloe can promote appetite and gentle body cleansing.

Chemical and Biological characterization of a polysaccharide biological response modifier from Aloe vera.Glycobiology14 (6):501, 2004 Pittman, J. C. (1992).

Immune enhancing effects of Aloe. Health Conscious,13(1), 2830. Ivan E. Danhof, Ph.D., M.D.Chemical and Biological characterization of a polysaccharide biological response modifier from Aloe vera.Glycobiology14 (6):501, 2004 Pittman, J. C. (1992).

Immune enhancing effects of Aloe. Health Conscious,13(1), 2830. Ivan E. Danhof, Ph.D., M.D.

Chemical and Biological characterization of a polysaccharide biological response modifier from Aloe vera.Glycobiology14 (6):501, 2004 Pittman, J. C. (1992).

Immune enhancing effects of Aloe. Health Conscious,13(1), 2830. Ivan E. Danhof, Ph.D., M.D.

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