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There are gaping holes in vaccine science, especially the critical role of microflora in mediating vaccine effects, including adverse ones.
Vaccine Injury: The Biological Plausibility of Microbial Predisposition - Part 2
The purpose of these articles is to call attention to gaping holes in vaccine science, issues never before studied:
1) How childhood vaccines may affect flora balance and colonization, and
2) How existing flora (microbial predisposition) may affect vaccine response leading to injury.
In Part 1, we explored microbes as the underlying beauty of diversity in explaining how children react differently to vaccines. It's known gut dysbiosis contributes to inflammation and poor vaccine response. This means imbalanced flora leads to vaccine failure. Children born with imbalanced flora may be prone to powerful vaccine reaction of the immune system leading to injury. Important microbes such as protective Bifidobacteria may be reduced or absent.
Some groups with microbial predisposition based on ancestral dietary habits may be predisposed to vaccine reaction and higher risk of injury. How childhood vaccines affect flora balance, short and long-term, remains unknown. And there are no studies about how the infant microbiome may predispose a child to vaccine injury.
By the CDC's own admission, African American boys may be one such group prone to vaccine injury: an increased risk of autism. One important microbial factor possibly explaining both poor vaccine response and vaccine injury is reduced or absent Bifidobacteria. Instead of doctors suggesting parents give their children Motrin or dangerous, glutathione-lowering Tylenol before and after vaccination, perhaps anti-inflammatory probiotics are in order to enhance vaccine response and protect from injury. This is the science of probiotics as vaccine adjuvants, except scientists aren't considering how probiotics may guard from injury. They're only interested in vaccine response to improve efficacy.
Before Dr. Brian Hooker's paper detailing significantly increased risk of autism by MMR vaccination in African American boys was retracted by its publisher, even stripped of its title, the Mayo Clinic was busy pondering why the African American immune system produces twice as many antibodies to the current rubella vaccine as Caucasians and Hispanics. They have no explanation other than genetics in disregard of microbial regulation of genes and immune response.
Here's Dr. Gregory Poland, head of the Mayo Clinic's Vaccine Research Group and Editor-in-Chief of the journal Vaccine, wondering aloud (video):
"The vaccine in essence is working differently. The question is, why? It's the same vaccine in human beings administered the same way and yet it stimulates a very different set of gene expression and protein secretion, that protein being antibody that protects us when we see the virus. We may be able to reduce the amount of side effects."
What Dr. Poland is not factoring is gene-microbe interaction and how people have different flora balance. Why is the Mayo Clinic focused on genes when microbiota are known to switch genes on and off, regulating gene expression? Reducing risk of side effects may be better approached through microbial DNA testing to determine an individual's flora balance prior to vaccination.
Dr. Hooker attempts to explain the discrepancy by way of vitamin D levels, known lower in African Americans while vitamin D deficiency is pandemic not based on skin color, but flora balance. Vitamin D isn't just about sunshine as commonly touted by experts. Some studies paradoxically find vitamin D levels lowest in the brightest months. The rickets epidemic in the UK is considered a matter of low sun exposure and poor diet while beaches are polluted with sewage ten times over legal limits. Children in Bangladesh are not suffering rickets due to wearing too much sunblock. The epidemic is more likely tied to high rates of gestational diabetes leading to gut dysbiosis in newborns beginning in the womb. It's no accident all the major gut diseases include vitamin D deficiency where these diseases are matters of microbial overgrowth. Microbes make and break vitamin D. They produce precursors of the hormone, vitamin D, and the enzymes responsible for its degradation. Moreover, small intestinal malabsorption due to gut dysbiosis leads to vitamin and mineral deficiency associated with hormonal imbalance. We're only beginning to learn how gut microbiota affect hormone levels. Bifidobacteria control inflammation by way of increasing hormone-secreting endocrine cells and improving gut barrier function.
Dr. Hooker also cites a 2010 paper where the Hepatitis B vaccine administered at birth results in higher rates of autism in nonwhite boys. "Non-Hispanic white boys were 64% less likely to have autism diagnosis relative to nonwhite boys." Armed with this information, why would any doctor allow an African American male newborn HepB vaccination within 12 hours of birth per cruel CDC schedule?
And what of newborns of all races and both genders potentially predisposed to vaccine injury based on microbial predisposition? Not only are genes passed from mother to child, but so are her microbes which interact with genes. With gut imbalances and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, Celiac and Crohn's on the rise affecting future generations, we're also seeing higher rates of vaccine injury.
Microbial-gene interaction is at the core of the problem, overlooked and underappreciated. Scientists are too quick to blame genetics when addressing vaccine injury without considering how microbes turn genes on and off like light switches. It's complicated by the fact that genes also regulate flora balance, a two-way street. Microbes regulate host genes while genes regulate microbial activity. We're in this together.
Blood antigen secretor status is normally considered controlled by genes. Bifidobacteria are found significantly reduced in non-secretors where African Americans were found to have the highest percentage of non-secretors.
Gene-microbe interaction is an intracellular phenomenon not yet part of our sterile textbook landscape. The Kreb's cycle, for example, is still taught as sterile process disconnected from the web of life. There are no diagrams of the Kreb's cycle integrating intracellular microbes doing the backstroke in cytosol of cells, releasing toxins, aldehydes and free fatty acids affecting energy metabolism.
The playing field of this interaction is the gut where 70% of the body's immune system resides. So, why would African Americans produce twice the antibodies by vaccination compared to other races per Mayo Clinic?
To answer this question, let's take a close view of where these antibodies are produced in the gut, Peyer's patches and cryptopatches. This is a groundbreaking 1990 electron microscope image of a sheep's ileum, last section of small intestine where the immune system is intimately associated with lymphatic and nervous systems, nerve bundles and fibers known as vagal afferents of the gut-brain, interface of microbes and their hosts:
The adaptive and innate immune systems work together to guide homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. But it's a two-way street as "a balanced indigenous microbiota is required to drive the normal development of both mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, the epithelial barrier with its secretory IgA (and IgM) system." Our immune system controls flora balance by intestinal IgA and SIgA while flora controls the immune system.
Antibodies in breast milk were found to give lifelong benefit in regulating gut microbiota and gene expression while antibody excretion is enhanced by microbes such as bifidobacteria: a circle of life where antibodies control flora and flora stimulate antibodies. Breastfeeding improves vaccine response; certainly a matter of flora balance due to probiotics and prebiotics in breast milk where breastfed infant gut flora is up to 90% bifidobacteria. Might breastfeeding also decrease risk of vaccine injury?
T-cells called intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) live in and are born from intestinal cryptopatches and Peyer's patches where they help B-cells become IgA producers dependent on colonization of bacteria, a reciprocal interaction. Bifidobacteria in particular play a strong role in this formation of antibodies. Bifidobacteria may also play a role in B-cell maturation where antibodies are not required for immunity against some viruses.
There are several studies detailing bifidobacteria inducing antibody production, strain dependent. Bifidobacterium breve was found to increase antibodies produced in Peyer's patches as adjuvant of an oral influenza vaccine. Another bifidobacteria strain was found to activate immune response in lymphatic tissue of both small and large intestine. Bifidobacterium infantis was found protective in salmonella infection by inducing production of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Bifidobacterium breve was tested in fermented milk, found to enhance B-cell and antibody production in Peyer's patches.
Elevated antibodies are known in autism indicating microbial imbalance and infection. For example, elevated anti-gliadin (IgG) antibodies may correlate with yeast overgrowth as gliadin is part of the fungal cell wall. Elevated measles antibodies known in autism is subject of great dispute as it may indicate abnormal immune reaction to vaccination.
The mighty Human Microbiome Project has yet to venture deeply into the small intestine, an equivalent of inner outer space. We're only beginning to understand how microbes influence health while vaccine scientists parrot age-old fallacy without evidence that children are born with sterile intestines, condoning vaccination within 12 hours of birth. Scientists are also revealing the unappreciated role of gut microbiota in immune response to vaccination. But in general, vaccine scientists have been living in a sterile world in utter disregard of microbial impact on immune response leading to injury. A particularly ominous example is high incidence of protozoans known in autism and how they may affect immune response in vaccination. Vertical, placental transmission of protozoans is known.
CDC protocol should be reduced and begun much later in life to allow the immune system, reliant on flora, time to develop, protecting children from injury. Microbial DNA (PCR) testing of meconium and routine stool testing pre-vaccination for biomarkers such as bifidobacteria may help avoid vaccine injury. An alternative is not to risk injury by vaccination, instead concentrating on building long-term natural immunity via optimal flora balance including nutrition.
How an abnormal immune reaction caused by vaccination leads to intestinal injury resulting in gut-brain malfunction such as autism will be explored in Part 3.